Figure 5: Alteration of protein expression after nerve combing and autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. Note: (A) Heat map of CSF proteins of patients (seven from the SC group and one from the NSC group) before nerve combing compared with those 3 days post-op. (B) Top 10 proteins expressed in the NSC and SC groups. (C) Significant changes (ranked by effect size) in the relative levels of CSF proteins in the SC group (n = 7). (D) KEGG pathway analysis and (E) GO analysis of the differentially expressed proteins from (C). (F) The proteins involved in these pathways were analyzed for PPI. (G) Expression levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (P < 0.0001), insulin-like growth factor–binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) (P < 0.001), growth/differentiation factor (GDF-15) (P < 0.001), and angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) (P < 0.01) were significantly different for each individual on the day of operation compared with 3 days postoperation (n = 7). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001, ****P < 0.0001. CSF: Cerebrospinal fluid; GO: Gene Ontology; KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes; NSC: non-stem cell; OP: operation; post-op: postoperation; pre-op: preoperation; SC: stem cell.